Fusion Bonded Epoxy is a one-part, thermosetting epoxy powder applied to steel pipe as corrosion protection in buried and below water service lines. The typical application process begins with a thorough visual inspection of the pipe surface for imperfections, contamination and defects. The pipe then travels along a conveyor system through blast cleaning machines which utilize steel shot and grit to achieve the appropriate cleanliness grade and suitable anchor profile. In some instances, such as chloride removal with acid, the pipe may be preheated to remove moisture and meet the required temperature for acid application later in the process. The cleaning process is followed by another close inspection of the pipe surface, again looking for imperfections or deleterious conditions within the pipe surface that are removed by light grinding. The prepared pipe is transferred to the coating line where the acid wash is applied, if required, and the pipe is heated to the powder manufacturer's recommended application temperature, normally about 463°F - 475°F. The fluidized epoxy powder is then applied to the heated surface through a series of electrostatically charged powder guns at a rate sufficient to meet the final coating thickness requirement, typically 14 to 16 mils for single-layer coatings. The reaction with the heated surface causes the powder to change to gel form where it 'flows' into the anchor profile and ultimately becomes a solid protective layer fully attached to the pipe surface.